Archives for category: Artykuły


Biopolitical cinema, exemplified by Michael Winterbottom, Roland Emmerich, and others, has questioned the ability of representative democracy to handle a catastrophic situation. Beyond that, biopolitical film has undermined the moral and political legitimacy of the democratic system as a whole. This article examines the formative moments of biopolitics: its affirmative use by German post-Nietzscheans of the 1920s and ‘30s, the French critique during the late 1970s, and the current translation of both to a set of post-9/11 images. All three moments use “cultural crisis” in order to plead for urgent reform, and use biopolitics as a critical concept aimed at a false liberal claim to legitimate power and its abuse.

… Biopolitical critique is also apparent in commentary about recent political film, though left somewhat underdeveloped: as Slavoj Žižek expresses it in his commentary on Cuarón’s Children of Men (2006), the film depicts “a society without history, or, to use another political term, biopolitics. And my god, this film literally is about biopolitics. The basic problem in this society as depicted in the film is literally biopolitics: how to generate, regulate life” (DVD Commentary). In Violence: Six Sideways Reflections, Žižek identifies the philosophical condition for Cuarón’s work: “The infertility Cuaron’s film is about was diagnosed long ago by Friedrich Nietzsche, when he perceived how Western civilization was moving in the direction of the Last Man…. We in the West are the Last Men” (24). …

Nitzan Lebovic

Lehigh University

Project MUSE – Adapting Philosophy: Jean Baudrillard and The Matrix Trilogy by Catherine Constable (review).


In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content:

Before you reach for the blue pill at the mention of yet another book on The Matrix trilogy (Wachowski brothers 1999-2003), I want to emphasise from the outset that Constable has managed to do something novel and exciting with arguably overworked material. Most importantly, this is the first study to bring the entire cultural and intellectual phenomenon of philosophical writing on the films to critical analysis within a film studies context. However, fans of the trilogy and the tomes it has inspired will not be disappointed, as Constable’s own close readings in the later chapters also contribute to the philosophical dialogue she surveys and critiques in the first part of the book. Yet, Constable goes much further in using the films and their readings as object lessons for a systematic rethinking of the cinematic adaptation of philosophy. A case in point is the work of Jean Baudrillard, not only insofar as it has inspired the trilogy’s conception and provided a framework for its philosophical analysis, but also as exemplary of the function of imagery within philosophical discourse.

In surveying the literature, Constable inventories philosophical assumptions about film as an object of study that tend to get uncritically reproduced, particularly within the tradition of Anglo analytic philosophy. Fundamental in this respect is a naïve understanding of filmic adaptation, in relation to which all positions remain mired in a ‚criterion of fidelity’ between philosophical source and cinematic representation. Consequently, the films are treated either condescendingly as ‚good examples’: introducing viewers to philosophical problems, or polemically as ‚bad philosophy’: exploiting the seductions of the medium to indulge forms of sophistry. Constable provides an incisive analysis of the paradoxes and contradictions that eventuate, for example, in discussions of filmic adaptations of Baudrillard’s concept of the hyperreal, which contests the very relation between original and copy that the fidelity model presumes. Ironically, the ‚bad copy’ enacts a heightened fidelity to the source. Yet, as Constable points out, such ironies are not restricted to the attacks of analytic philosophers, but reach their apogee in Baudrillard’s own disqualification of the trilogy on the basis of infidelity to his thought. For Constable this point of tacit consensus among thinkers who would otherwise agree on little else is reflective of engrained philosophical hierarchies, such as conceptual/ perceptual, word/image and academic/popular within the fidelity model, and in relation to which the categorical incapacity of film as a medium to duplicate the forms of abstract argumentation characteristic of language gets misconstrued as a specific shortcoming of the trilogy. What Constable calls for instead is an inquiry into how philosophical thought gets reconstituted within the communicative structures specific to moving images, rather than lamenting that latter’s inability to form a syllogism.

The way forward, Constable argues, starts from an understanding that the key link between philosophical and filmic texts is not argumentation but figuration, which is crucial for articulating a more expansive sense of adaptation. The groundwork for such an approach is laid out in the second chapter by drawing formatively upon Kamilla Elliot’s work on the filmic adaptation of literature and Michèle Le Doueff’s analysis of the disavowed role of imagery within philosophical language. Considerable effort is spent tracing Elliot’s argument that while structuralist semiotics has broadened the notion of textuality to incorporate film and other image-based media, it still preserves a separation of graphic and iconic signs in relation to which thought gets excluded from the perception of images. Although Constable draws upon Elliot’s idea of a ‚looking-glass logic’, which emphasises the reversibility of the graphic/conceptual and linguistic/iconic modalities of signification, she rejects the notion that one must dispense with structural semiotics in favour of a cognitivist approach to articulate this reciprocity. She turns instead to the interrelation of metaphor and metonymy within Christian Metz’s cine-semiotics to challenge the separation of thought and perception within film experience. Her reading of Metz is insightful and draws attention to neglected aspects of his…


Project MUSE - Adapting Philosophy: Jean Baudrillard and The Matrix Trilogy by Catherine Constable (review)

Ciało? Cyfrowe? który z tych dwóch elementów powinienem wziąć w cudzysłów?

Moving Imagination: Explorations of gesture and inner movement,  pod redakcją Heleny De Preester

Cały tekst dostępny w podglądzie online na GoogleBooks.

Rola fikcji w eksperymentach w ramach projektowania, sztuki oraz architektury

This paper offers a typology for understanding design fiction as a new approach in design research. The typology allows design researchers to explain design fictions according to 5 criteria: (1) “What if scenarios” as the basic construal principle of design fiction; (2) the manifestation of critique; (3) design aims; (4) materializations and forms; and (5) the aesthetic of design fictions. The typology is premised on the idea that fiction may integrate with reality in many different ways in design experiments. The explanatory power of the typology is exemplified through the analyses of 6 case projects.

The Uses of Genre and the Classification of Speculative Fiction

R.B. Gill
From: Mosaic: a journal for the interdisciplinary study of literature
Volume 46, Number 2, June 2013
pp. 71-85 | 10.1353/mos.2013.0021

Optimally, a definition of speculative fiction will promote interpretation by suggesting affinities with similar explorations of human imagination and values. The looseness of the category provides opportunity for examination of varieties of classification and uses of genre.


Publication Date: 7 May 2013 | ISBN-10: 113703517X | ISBN-13: 978-1137035172

„Does twenty-first century fiction offer the reader identifiably new fictional styles, themes, characteristics or tropes? What theoretical ideas best describe the uncertain world we appear now to be living in? What are the most interesting and significant novels of the twenty-first century and what do they tell us about the contemporary times we live in? These are the key questions engaged with in this new critical volume of essays on 21st century fiction. The chapters explore the work of writers as diverse as Salman Rushdie, David Peace, Ali Smith, Margaret Atwood, Iain Banks, China Miéville, Trezza Azzopardi, John Burnside and Hilary Mantel in depth and at length, developing fresh critical approaches to work that is genuinely of our time. Throughout this unique collection the aim is to identify what is distinctive and innovative about the individual novels and about 21st century fiction in general.”

Twenty-First Century Fiction: What Happens Now: Siân Adiseshiah, Rupert Hildyard: Books.

Interesujące teksty o dystopiach:

13. ‚You just know when the world is about to break apart’: Utopia, Dystopia, and New Global Uncertainties in Sarah Hall’s The Carhullan Army; Iain Robinson
14. Finding the Right Kind of Attention: Dystopia and Transcendence in John Burnside’s Glister; Florian Niedlich
Introduction: Glister, Romantic Thought and the Religious Turn
Dystopia and Transcendence

JSTOR: Slavic Review, Vol. 72, No. 2 (SUMMER 2013), pp. 219-223.

Introduction: From Nauchnaia Fantastika to Post-Soviet Dystopia

Sibelan Forrester and Yvonne Howell
Slavic Review
Vol. 72, No. 2 (SUMMER 2013), pp. 219-223
index (1)

How Nauchnaia Fantastika Was Made: The Debates about the Genre of Science Fiction from NEP to High Stalinism

Matthias Schwartz

za pomocą JSTOR: Slavic Review, Vol. 72, No. 2 (SUMMER 2013), pp. 224-246.


Based on a detailed analysis of published and unpublished sources, Matthias Schwartz reconstructs the making of Soviet science fiction in the cultural context of Soviet literary politics. Beginning in the 1920s, nauchnaia fantastika (scientific fantasy) became one of the most popular forms of light fiction, though literary critics and activists tended to dismiss it because of its origins in popular adventure, its ties to the so-called Pinkerton literature, and its ambiguous relationship to scientific inventions and social progress. Schwartz’s analysis shows that even during high Stalinism, socialist realism’s norms were far from being firmly established, but in the case of nauchnaia fantastika had to be constantly negotiated and reconstituted as fragile compromises involving different interest groups (literary politicians, writers, publishers, readers). A cultural history of Soviet science fiction also contributes to a better understanding of what people actually wanted to read and sheds new light on the question of how popular literature adapts to political changes and social destabilizations.

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Michael R. Underwood -- Speculative Fictionero


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